Introduction by OpenMethods Editor (Marinella Testori):
If you are looking for solutions to translate narratological concepts to annotation guidelines to tag or mark-up your texts for both qualitative and quantitative analysis, then Edward Kearns’s paper “Annotation Guidelines for narrative levels, time features, and subjective narration styles in fiction” is for you! The tag set is designed to be used in XML, but they can be flexibly adopted to other working environments too, including for instance CATMA. The use of the tags is illustrated on a corpus of modernist fiction.
The guidelines have been published in a special issue of The Journal of Cultural Analytics (vol. 6, issue 4) entirely devoted to the illustration of the Systematic Analysis of Narrative levels Through Annotation (SANTA) project, serving as the broader intellectual context to the guidelines. All articles in the special issue are open peer reviewed , open access, and are available in both PDF and XML formats.
The Systematic Analysis of Narrative levels Through Annotation (SANTA) has been developed in several phases since 2017 through a collaboration between some German Universities and cultural institutions. It aims at defining common standards of annotation for narrative texts as a Shared Task for the Digital Humanities.
In their contribution “On the Theory of Narrative Levels and their Annotation in the Digital Context”, Ketschik and al. (2021) describe the theoretical basis of the project, focussing their attention on what argued by Gérard Genette in his Narrative Discourse Revisited about the “extradiegetic”, the “intradiegetic” and the “metadiegetic” Narrator and various, clearly perceivable levels of narration; Bauer and Lahrsow (2021), instead, delve into the role of the Narratee as theorized by William Nelles as well as into the boundaries existing between each level of narration. Hammond (2021) illustrates the annotation guidelines and their articulation around the concept of “nframe category”, consisting in a series of attributes for each narrative level. Both theoretical foundations and annotation criteria are the topics of Kearns (2021), which explains the concepts of “level”, “analepsis and prolepsis”, “stream of consciousness” and “free indirect discourse” as steps of the annotation process. Finally, Gius et al. (2021) provide an overview of the initiative, along with the contents of the Guidelines for annotation that are the result of the collaborative work and a general evaluation of the perspectives and recommendations for future “shared tasks in the Digital Humanities”.
Bauer, Matthias, and Miriam Lahrsow. 2021. “Collaborative Annotation as a Teaching Tool.”Journal of Cultural Analytics 6 (4). https://doi.org/10.22148/001c.30702
Füredy, Viveca. 1989. “A Structural Model of Phenomena with Embedding in Literature and Other Arts,” Poetics Today 10: 745–69.
Genette, Gérard. 1988. Narrative Discourse Revisited. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Gius, Evelyn, Marcus Willand, and Nils Reiter. 2021. “On Organizing a Shared Task for the Digital Humanities–Conclusions and Future Paths.”Journal of Cultural Analytics 6 (4). https://doi.org/10.22148/001c.30697.
Kearns, Edward. 2021. “Annotation Guidelines For Narrative Levels, Time Features, and Subjective Narration Styles in Fiction (SANTA 2).”Journal of Cultural Analytics 6 (4). https://doi.org/10.22148/001c.30699
Ketschik, Nora, Benjamin Krautter, Sandra Murr, and Yvonne Zimmermann. 2021. “On the Theory of Narrative Levels and Their Annotation in the Digital Context.”Journal of Cultural Analytics 6 (4). https://doi.org/10.22148/001c.30700
Nelles, William. 1997. Frameworks: Narrative Levels and Embedded Narrative (New York: P. Lang).
“Narrative Levels: A Shared Task for the Digital Humanities”
Shared Tasks in the Digital Humanities